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In 1921 Philip Graves Exposed the "Protocols of Zion" as Phony
by Jared Israel and Samantha Criscione
Includes links to text and PDF files of Philip Graves's three London Times articles
[Posted 26 November 2002. Edited and reposted 14 March 2006]
[ www.tenc.net ]
For the first time, Emperor's Clothes has published on the internet Philip Grave's London Times articles on "The Protocols of Zion." It is remarkable that in these three articles, which Graves wrote in 1921, he proved "The Protocols" was a fabrication. Remarkable because, despite his devastating proof, "The Protocols" nevertheless became the widely published bible of antisemitism in general and Nazism in particular, and it is still with us today, disseminated, for example, to tens of millions of Arabs in written form and even on Television.
In his 1921 expose, Graves called "The Protocols" a forgery. This was an unfortunate choice of words. "Forgery" has two meanings:
Mr. Graves meant 'forgery' in the sense of "making...with intent to defraud," not in the sense of "a copy that is represented as the original," since the latter could be taken to suggest that there was a real "Protocols" somewhere.
Looking through the dictionary, we find it hard to pick a better word. The closest we could find is "fabrication," combining these two dictionary definitions:
The point is - and this was Graves's point - "The Protocols" was invented with the deliberate intent to instill an imaginary and racist view of what caused problems in the world. The fact that we simply do not have a word in English (or for that matter in Italian, German, or French, at least that we could think of) to describe this level of deceit is part of the reason that "The Protocols" could work. People simply do not expect to be lied to on such a scale. It is so hard to conceive, let alone believe, that we don't have words for it
But it happened, and Graves proved it. He showed that whole sections of "The Protocols" were simply lifted from a book of political satire, written 50 years earlier. The book was called "Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu," or "Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu." It was written by Maurice Joly.
In it, the ruthless Machiavelli and the liberal Montesquieu debate over how a ruler should maintain power. The book was meant as an attack on the French government. Neither that government, nor the author, Mr. Joly, nor either of the philosophers were Jewish. And there is nothing in the book about Jewish-Gentile relations. But Machiavelli says very harsh things, and so, as Graves demonstrates, the authors of "The Protocols" (who were probably members of the Russian Czar's secret police) took Machiavelli's words, as made up by Joly, and presented them as the thoughts of some imaginary "Elders of Zion."
You can actually buy a copy of Joly's book in French at http://tinyurl.com/jmau7
"The Protocols" also used material from another a book. This was a violently antisemitic novel called "Biarritz," written by a minor Prussian secret police informer named Hermann Goedsche. Mr. Goedsche had been a postal worker before turning to racist fiction:
Below are links to Graves's articles in text and PDF form. Emperor's Clothes authorizes free distribution of these files but please credit the source.
We have also linked to some of our articles on antisemitism in general and "The Protocols" in particular.
Jared Israel and Samantha Criscione
* For the text file of Graves' London
Times articles go to
* For the PDF files of Graves's articles:
* For articles on antisemitism and the
Arab-Israeli conflict, go to
* For articles related to “The Protocols of Zion,” see:
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